What is the most powerful programming language? According to the benchmarks, Smalltalk allows to write code as fast as possible.
If on the other hand one is interested in the possibility of reusing ready-made components one arrives very quickly on Python.
If the question is about the speed of execution it is very different.
The speed of code execution by the computer is less important than developer productivity in a large number of cases. The notable exceptions are HPC and graphics software that absolutely must be optimized.
The reference in these cases is C and C++. But it is a very expensive language to use. You need experienced developers.
The new Rust allows to secure things a little bit more and therefore to save debugging.
Go is the best option to have your cake and eat it too. It is easier to write than Java with similar speed of execution.
The Go ecosystem is very server-oriented. Java is still an option because it has a lot of libraries.
If you want to have your cake and eat it too, there is Julia. The creamer. It is as fast as C if it is well written and even easier and faster to write than Python in the prototyping phase. On the other hand it is a recent language whose ecosystem is for the moment only complete in the field of data sciences.
The most powerful in the sense of “power” is of course assembler. It is just a bit complex to code, depends on the processors and is reserved for routines (there must be a micro fraction of programmers who are able to produce lines that work).
If you want to do management with millions of records to be processed daily, it is without doubt the cobol with SQL/DB2.
Of course these two have nothing to do with the whole “web” family which will prefer Java or PHP.
C and C++ for applications and everything scientific. etc ….
For information and probably against all expectations, the Cobol language is currently the most used on the planet, it represents 70% of the lines written.
Already for me, the most powerful programming language is C. why?? with C you have access to your RAM memory, you understand how a memory works, with C you can do hardware programming, and electronics.
C is a very structured language, very technical, for me it’s the best, then comes python and assembler.