Why are the IP addresses separated by dots?

The original programmers of the network modules had no preference when it came to writing your IPV4 address. TCP/IP allows you to write a numeric address using several formats. The following addresses are strictly equivalent:

  • 0x7f000001 – still works, at least on Linux.
  • 0x7f.1 – still works, at least on Linux
  • 0177.00.00.01 – Octal for 127.0.0.1 – Still valid on Linux
  • 127.0.0.1 – Decimal format
  • 2130706433 – Decimal without dot. – Still valid on Linux. Mostly exploited by computer viruses.

Why all this format:

There are several valid forms of digital IPV4 address. Around 1980, the world was separated between octal (DEC, NOVA…) and Hexadecimal (IBM, Amdhal…). TCP/IP was born between these two worlds.

It had a flexible address mode that could adapt to both environments.

The beginning of networks on mini-computers

For the simple reason that the developers didn’t know what we could do with a network, they all started with the development of 255 nodes solution (8 bits address). So TCP/IP, DECNET, ARCNET and many other less known solutions such as “NETWORK” started with computers numbered from 1 to 255. All the protocols of the time used decimal to number the computers which was easier for non computer scientists and researchers.

Definition of Network, Area or similar context.

Before 1983, there were no microcomputers to consider in companies. Moreover, the majority did not own 255 computers. On the other hand, they had an interest to exchange data with other companies.

TCP/IP defined the concept of network class (A,B,C,D,E), DECNET used the concept of Area.host. and “NETWORK” used “Client.Region.Computer”.

At that time, for all addressing formats, the goal was to facilitate the work of routers. It should be remembered that the first dedicated routers from Cisco date from 1985. In 1980, a VAX 11/780 (1 Million$), was a flagship computer of the time. It offered 1 MIPS Drystone of power. A new Raspberry PI 4 of $50 offers 22500 MIPS Drystone. The network protocols were trying to limit the power thirst of the routing algorithms.

Nomenclature with “.”

The “.” was featured in this application. Almost all network protocols used it to stand for Network.Node. In many applications, the “.” denoted a hierarchy. For example, domain names: http://WWW.JYL.CA

(Computer.Domain.Registrar). It replaced the space and gave meaning to the nomenclature.

DECNET with Area→node: 16bits.16bits in octal or decimal.

IPX with Network→Server→Node EX: 0000.0000.0001

But TCP/IP unlike other protocols is much more hierarchical. It relies heavily on the notion of Subnetwork for its routing function. In 1981 or 1982, it already seemed clear that all addresses would ultimately be used when split into Class C, the only realistic way for routing protocols to work as defined in the RFCs.

At that time, some TCP/IP networks used addresses such as: network.node. EX: ping 127.1. or ping 0x7f.1 or ping 0177.01. This type of simple addressing was abandoned with the routing function. We had to use subnets and in 1982 these were called TCP/IP class “C” networks. These were defined by four independent bytes, a type of hierarchy.

Cemented by the introduction of the NCSA MOSAIC browser (1993)

NCSA MOSAIC was written by application/researcher type programmers and less familiar with TCP/IP internals. The first version of the browser only accepted addresses in the form [x.x.x.x] decimal.

For network people this was not really a consideration anymore. There weren’t many programmers who read octal or hexadecimal in the usual way anymore. DNS was working relatively well and this is the 90s.

I believe that this was the marketing basis for the generalization of the X.X.X.X – Decimal format.

DISCLAIMER: Some of the facts stated depend on my perceptions at the time. I have been installing, developing and managing NETWORK and DECNET systems since 1981. However, my first TCP/IP networks were installed in 1984. At that time, the French documentation was non-existent and I didn’t speak English. When I had a question, a translator sent a letter and most of the time, we received a module printout written in “C” with lines highlighted with the Highlighter. This doesn’t help much with the philosophical concepts and whys.

How to check the maximum RAM your computer support?

computer memory

How do I increase the amount of RAM in my computer? Is it possible that purchasing too much RAM will cause compatibility issues? In recent years, computer applications or games have necessitated more and more RAM, prompting many friends to consider RAM expansion. Especially for laptop users, the mainstream notebook or 8G RAM was two or three years ago and has already been strained to the maximum.

How to check the maximum RAM your computer support?

But, in the end, how much RAM should be added? This strategy is not practicable because 64G RAM is the future of the war at the same time? This isn’t always the case, though.

computer memory

Many computers support adding their own RAM, but what is the maximum amount that can be added?

In fact, many computers have a maximum RAM capacity limit due to the limitations of the chipset. Even if you increase the RAM to 64G, the computer may not be able to use it all. So how do you know what is the maximum amount of RAM your computer can support? Here’s a little method to help you.

First of all, we open the CMD command line of the computer and open it directly through the system search, which is the same for Win7 and Win10.

Next, enter the following command in the CMD.

wmic memphysical get maxcapacity

Press the Enter key, and you will get a string of numbers. This number is the maximum RAM capacity that can be supported, but in kilobytes, which we will convert to GB units with the following formula.

GB = kilobytes ÷ 1024 ÷ 1024

For example, I looked up the number 16777216, and after calculating it, I can learn that the computer supports a maximum of 16GB of RAM. Considering that the author’s computer only has two RAM stick slots, then I should buy two 8G of RAM to plug them full, more would just be a waste.

Well, this is the skill to check the maximum RAM capacity supported by the computer, I hope it can help you!

How to Create a Website?

creating website

Owning a website is essential nowadays especially for businesses or even individuals who want to show off their services or express themselves. If you are wondering how to create a website, it is quite easy, with the free tools that come readily available creating a website nowadays isn’t hard as it used to be before. If you own a business and don’t have a website you are missing out.

Below is a simple step-by step guide on how you can go about creating your first website.

Choosing and registering a domain name

Before you start creating your website, the first thing you need to do is register a domain name that relates to topic of your site. This is your address on the web. This is what will help customers find you on the internet.

creating website

The domain name can be a combination of letters and/or numbers up to 63 characters. The main official domain names are .com which is the most common and recommended especially for a business, .org which is used for nonprofits, .net normally used by internet providers, .biz specific to businesses, and .info specifically used for information services.

  • Use the following tips to help you choose a good domain name.
  • Keep it brief. Make it short and memorable.
  • Keep it simple for people to spell. Avoid spelling names unusually.
  • Choose a domain name that reflects your topic or your business.

If in doubt, choose .com as its what many people think of when typing a domain name. You can register a domain name through the most popular domain registration service Godaddy, Namecheap, etc.

Choosing a web host

A web host is a company that will make your website available online for people to see. They make use of the skills and equipment to ensure the website is online throughout. The hosting company stores your website on their servers and transmits it to the internet when someone searches your domain name. It’s crucial that you choose the right web host. A good host will provide excellent support. Check how responsive they are before you choose them, as it will reflect the kind of service you will get. After choosing the ideal web host, the next step is choosing the plan you want. They want you to get the most expensive ones, but make sure to choose a plan within your budget. We recommend that you start with Hostgator, its one of the most popular and trusted web hosting company out there.

Building your website and adding content

The next step on how to create a website is actually building the website and adding content relevant to your topic. Many people prefer leaving this part to experts but you can do it yourself. To build the website yourself, you need a web building software, which you can get free from the host or from an outside vendor. Always make sure to make it simple, interesting and avoid annoying pop ups

Creating your website using wordpress

If you want to know how to create a website and add content, wordpress comes high recommended to help you build and add content to your site. WordPress is content management design software that allows people to build dynamic blogs and sites, you don’t need to be a techie to use word press, it’s quite easy.

You can choose from thousands of themes both free and paid to design the website you want. With word press, you can create SEO friendly content. You can choose from the various themes and addons to make your site more friendly based on your style

All you pay is your web host and if you get stuck call them any time to help you.

You can now add newsletters, counters, and auto responders to your website since you are now done creating your first website

If you have been wondering how to create a website for your business or personal use, as explained in the steps above web creation isn’t easy and anyone can do It without the need for any design background. There are many online tools to help you design a website based on your preference.

Always ensure to choose a reputable host, choose an appropriate domain name and use the freely available online resources to help you in creating your ideal website.

The above how to create a website tutorial can be used by anyone who wants to design a website for their personal use or for their business.

How to solve if your DNS server does not respond?

router dns setting

If you get the error message ‘DNS Server isn’t responding’ in your system, you cannot access the Internet. We’ll show you how to solve the Problem.

Windows Error: the DNS Server isn’t responding

If your Browser cannot connect to the Internet, Windows troubleshooting typically displays the following errors:

  • ‘The DNS Server is not responding’
  • ‘The Computer appears to be configured correctly, but the device or resource (DNS Server) does not respond’

DNS Server is not Responding

Only one computer can be affected and the others on the same network work as usual.

Solution 1 – restart the Router

  1. Restart your Router.
  2. Disconnect it from power for about 30 seconds and reconnect it.

Solution 2 – use other browsers

Try another Browser and see if the Problem is there.

Solution 3 – scan Firewall or disable virus scanner

  1. If you have configured your Firewall specifically, this can be the source of error.
  2. Disables it temporarily to check.
  3. The same applies to installed third-party virus scanners.

Solution 4 – switch DNS Server

For example, set Google as a DNS server if the above solutions do not work.

  1. Open the user interface of your router in the Browser.
  2. Find the Network setting, then find DNS setting
  3. Clear the default DNS address , then type in 8.8.8.8 and 8.8.4.4.
  4. Click the Apply button.

router dns setting

Ask your ISP if other computers in your Network have the same Problem. In case the Problem could not be resolved, please comment below, we will try to help you if we can find a solution.
What do you think of the name change from Windows 9 to Windows 10?

Today many people use your Smartphone or PC to browse the Internet through which you can get a lot of information about everything and also get a lot of entertainment through different Internet sites, but sometimes we have to face some problems.

There are many network-related issues that you can face when you try a specific network to connect or load a web page. The biggest and most common problem is the DNS Problem, hope you find a solution in this article.

What is Bitcoin?

bitcoin

What is Bitcoin? How does Internet Money work? Where does it come from and how can it be used? We will answer these and other related questions below.

bitcoin

The Bitcoin History

When it comes to Bitcoin, the most important question is probably: what is Bitcoin? A short question that requires a comprehensive response. We are going to deal with essential here.

Bitcoin is a digital currency that was first presented by Satoshi Nakamoto in an eight-page treatise. This paper, also known as white paper, bears the title “Bitcoin: a Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System ” and describes the essential characteristics of the new currency (https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf). The author – Satoshi Nakamoto – has kept himself away from the public. At the beginning of 2011, only two and a half years after the publication of the White Paper, Satoshi disappears from any online forums.

bitcoin

Until now, it is uncertain whether Satoshi is an individual person or a group of like-minded people. However, it is known that the very first Bitcoin was created by Satoshi himself and also the first Bitcoin transfer was transferred from one of his Wallets. The recipient of this transfer was Hal Finney, one of the first Bitcoin users. Hal Finney was in regular contact with Satoshi and supported Bitcoin in its early days.

A few months passed before Bitcoin (BTC) was actually used as a means of payment for the first time. It was the 21st of May 2010 when Laszlo Hanyecz paid 10,000 BTC to the supplier for two pizzas. Previously, he had posted a corresponding request in an Online Forum. Compared to today’s prices, these would probably be the most expensive pizzas in history. The first step towards the global digital currency was taken.

Shortly afterwards MtGox opened the first exchange center for online trading with Bitcoin. In the following months, the entire capitalization price of the existing Bitcoins climbs over  one million US dollars. Bitcoin reached its peak at the end of 2013 when the price broke  $1,000 mark. In the coming years, Bitcoin was accepted as payment by a growing number of retailers with Online stores. Even larger companies like Microsoft and Dell accepted Bitcoin for various services from the end of 2014.

Bitcoin had proven to be a working digital currency and is not tangible as it only exists virtually. The System was created in order to be able to exchange values worldwide directly and without middle agency. There is no company that controls or markets Bitcoin.

Blockchain – is the technology that makes Bitcoin possible

Back to the question ‘What is Bitcoin?’ to answer it completely, the answer must also be dedicated to Blockchain. Blockchain is a technical System, which is based on Bitcoin and its function at all possible. This particular Blockchain is the technology that distinguishes Bitcoin from previous internet currencies. The particular operation of this technology has the potential to revolutionize the Internet and all data and communication channels based on it.

bitcoin payment transfer

Unlike the term Blockchain, a Blockchain not only consists of a chain of blocks, it’s also a system that links records to a time and adds them to a publicly visible history. This history is stored on thousands of computers worldwide, and a Change, or an updated history is stored simultaneously by all participants.

The Bitcoin Blockchain stores the sender, receiver, BTC amount and time for a transaction. This data is checked for validity. As all computers check at the same time, fraud can be almost completely excluded. Once a transaction has been checked and confirmed, it is attached to the history. Once appended to this, the transaction is part of the Blockchain and thus unalterable.

In addition to the immutability of transactions that have already been executed, the Blockchain is characterised by two other essential characteristics. The Bitcoin Blockchain is ‘decentralized’ and transfers are carried out ‘peer-to-peer’ directly from user to user. Unlike traditional currency systems, the Blockchain does not have a central entity that controls the System. There is not a single center, but all participating computers provide a worldwide network of data stores. Due to the decentralisation, Blockchain is more secure than centralised systems. Compared to traditional bank transfers, transaction is transferred ‘peer-to-peer’. This means that transactions can be carried out much more cheaply and, above all, faster. A Bitcoin transaction is considered to be executed as soon as it’s added to the Blockchain. Once the transfer has been made, a unique Hash is created. A Hash is a long sequence of different characters, which results from the stored data record. A Hash can refer to the transaction, similar to a referral reference.

Wallets – the accounts of Blockchain world

To use Bitcoin, a so-called Bitcoin Wallet is required. With a Bitcoin Wallet Bitcoin can be held, received and transferred. The most important element of a Wallet is the so-called ‘Private Key’. The private key is similar to a password. This private key is used to create a Bitcoin Wallet address, the Wallet address can be used to receive Bitcoins, and to receive Bitcoins, a transaction must be confirmed with a Private Key.

bitcoin wallet

A Bitcoin Wallet is, so to speak, the place where the password and Wallet address come together. Who has access to both keys can access the Wallet, and thus owns the Bitcoins. The more secure the keys are stored, the more secure you can hold BTC amount. One way to secure a Wallet is to write the address and password on paper and hide it well. A Wallet App is suitable for everyday use of Bitcoin. With a Wallet App, you can stay mobile and pay with your own Bitcoins or transfer them as needed.

What is Bitcoin today and how is it used?

Bitcoin is often measured in US dollars or euros based on the current price. Financially strong investors and speculators have a special influence on the valuation of Bitcoin. On stock exchanges specifically designed for digital currencies, Bitcoin can be traded against other cryptocurrencies. Many of the cryptocurrencies created after Bitcoin can only be purchased with Bitcoin or sold against Bitcoin.

In addition to the well-known payment methods, Bitcoin is increasingly accepted on different Online platforms. In addition to large companies such as Microsoft, Zynga, Overstock, or Shopify, offering certain products and services against Bitcoin, there are a variety of smaller retailers that accept Bitcoin.

In cities such as New York and Berlin, you can pay with Bitcoin at various retailers and Restaurants. Over recent years, there has been a steady increase in acceptance points. The possibilities of buying Bitcoin via bank transfer or credit card have also increased. The signs for the further spread of Bitcoin as an alternative means of payment look promising.